Stock Options: ISOs vs. NQSOs


Stock Options ISOs vs. NQSOs

Key Takeaways

Full Text

Stock options are a staple in equity compensation, serving as a key incentive mechanism for companies to attract and retain talent. Essentially, stock options give employees the right to purchase company stock at a predetermined price at a future date. The choice between issuing incentive stock options (“ISOs”) and non-qualified stock options (“NQSOs”) carries significant legal and tax implications, which are crucial for both employers and employees to understand. On these matters, it is recommended that both companies issuing options and employees receiving options consult with competent legal counsel.

The Distinct Types of Stock Options

  1. Incentive Stock Options (“ISOs”): ISOs qualify for special tax treatment under the United States Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”), making them a potentially tax-efficient option for employees. However, ISOs come with strict qualifying criteria (e.g., they can only be issued to employees).

  2. Non-Qualified Stock Options (“NQSOs”): NQSOs are more straightforward but less tax-advantageous than ISOs. NQSOs can be granted to a broader array of service providers, not just employees, making them flexible but potentially leading to immediate taxable income upon exercise.

Tax Implications of ISOs and NQSOs

  • ISOs: These provide a favorable tax deferral opportunity as no regular income tax is due at exercise. Taxes are only owed when the employee eventually sells the stock, potentially at long-term capital gains rates, which tend to be lower than regular income tax rates.
  • NQSOs: When an employee exercises NQSOs, they are taxed on the difference between the stock’s fair market value (“FMV”) at the time of exercise and the exercise price as regular income. This tax occurs regardless of whether the employee sells the stock, creating a potential cash flow issue.

Choosing Between ISOs and NQSOs

Deciding whether to grant ISOs or NQSOs should involve the consideration of several factors:

  • Eligibility and Limitations: ISOs are strictly available to employees and must be exercised within three months after the employee leaves the company, among other restrictions. They also have caps on how much can be exercised in a year and require that the stock be held for certain periods to receive tax benefits.

  • Flexibility and Broad Applicability: NQSOs can be granted to a wider group of individuals, including consultants, advisors and board members, providing companies with greater flexibility in their compensation strategies.

Potential Pitfalls and Considerations

Despite their advantages, ISOs are not always the optimal choice due to their restrictive conditions. They must be held for more than two years after they are granted and more than one year after exercise to qualify for the aforementioned favorable tax treatment. Any ISOs not adhering to the governing set of rules will automatically be treated as NQSOs.

For startups and other early-stage companies, understanding these nuances is vital to effectively leveraging stock options as part of a comprehensive compensation strategy. Incorrectly handled options can lead to unintended financial and tax consequences for both the company and its employees.

If an ISO fails to meet its qualifying criteria, it defaults to NQSO status, altering the anticipated tax benefits. This might occur due to various reasons, including failure to meet the holding period requirements or if the options are cashed out during a company acquisition, which would be treated as ordinary income for tax purposes.


Stock options, whether ISOs or NQSOs, offer companies a versatile tool in designing competitive compensation packages. However, the complexity of their tax implications and the legal requirements involved necessitate careful planning and consultation with legal and tax professionals to ensure that the benefits align with the strategic goals of the company and the financial well-being of its employees.

Chatterjee Legal is able to assist on the matters discussed in this Insight. Please reach out via e-mail to and a member of our team will be in touch with you shortly.

This Insight is a thought leadership production of Chatterjee Legal, P.C. and is presented subject to certain disclaimers, accessible here.

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